In childhood, we learnt that the king of Macedonia assumed the kingship at a very early age of 20 years. He conquered the whole ancient Greek in 23 three years of his age.
His history of conquests is as long as the history of human being. His conquests include Anatolia, Syria, Phoenicia, Egypt, Persia, Mesopotamia, Judea, Gaza, and Bactria and extended boundaries of his empire as far as Taxila, India (now Pakistan).chapter of his conquests didn’t end, but he couldn’t survive more. He breathed his last in the palace of Bakht Nasr in 33 years age.
Who was he? None! But, he could only be king of the kings entitled ‘Alexander the great’. Today, I ask a question from historians of 21st century, is it fair to call Alexander’ the king of kings’ having another great conqueror Hazrat Umar in the history? Historians know Alexander was the son of a king. He was taught and trained war tricks by trained persons.
He was spoon-fed how to conquer states. Would you answer me about the historical background of Hazrat Umar(R.A)? Was he a trained conqueror? Was he the son of a king? Nay! In spite of that, Hazrat Umar broke the record of conquests. He conquered Iraq, Iran, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Syria, Jordan, Palestine, Lebanon, Afghanistan, Egypt, Turkmenistan and southwestern Pakistan.
“ Hazrat Umar took reigns of government in his own hands and pursued the frontier foreign policy of his predecessors with his characteristics zeal and vigour. Within a short period, he brought mighty empires of Persia and Rome under the banner of Islam” quoted K.Ali in his book a study of Islamic history.
Alexander conquered states through an organized army whereas an army of Hazrat Umar(R.A) was not as strong and organized as of Alexander, in spite of that Second pious Caliphs conquered 22 lac muraba as compare to Alexanders 17 lac muraba.
Alexander had conquered half of the world, but he couldn’t give any system or political management to the world as compare to Umar(R.A) the great. What Hazrat Umar(R.A) introduced during his reign can well be known through following subheadings.
Administrative Achievements Of Umar(R.A)
Among four pious caliphs, Hazrat Umar(R.A) was the first to succeed in build a strong Muslim Umpire through his administrative policies and the changes brought into governance in Arabia.
- He introduced the Hijra Calendar.
- Introduced first time Prison system in Islamic empire.
- Fixed salaries of Moazin.
- Kindled lights in dark nights in the mosques of his empire.
- Established Judicial system.
- Introduced New system of agriculture.
- Ordered to build military cantonments and a strong military system.
- Fixed stipends for the disabled, widows and orphan children.
- Strong rule of law specially for dishonest judges.
- Strict Check and balance over administrators.
- Strong accountability for corrupt administrators and officers.
His Simple Style of Leading Life
Hazrat Umar(R.A) was always simply attired. He used to eat simple food, and he never wished two dishes at a time. While travelling, he used to sleep under trees. He never wore fresh and new clothes. He himself considered accountable for his subjects.
Before appointing any official, he used to draw up a list of his wealth and assets to judge his honesty after being appointed to any department.
His sense of Responsibility
Before appointing anyone as governor or administrator, he briefed that never use the costly horse for riding, never wear light clothes, never shut the door of listening complaints of any subject and never wear golden things. He said to forgive cruel is the greatest injustice.
His sense of Humanity
He was the first Caliph who said,
“Mothers give birth to freed children, who has given you the right to enslave them.”
Therefore, he was entitled as Ameer -ul- Momnee.
His sense of Justice
Islam is the only religion that is famous for Justice, and Hazrat Umar(R.A) was the first to call for Justice. Therefore, Islamic Justice is called as ADLE_FAROQUE.
At the death of Umar(R.A), a man reached from a far from jungle, people asked him, how did you come to know about his death, he explained:’
“When Umar was alive, none could dare to eat my cattle. it is the first time during the reign of Umar, an animal ate my one goat; this clearly indicated that the great personality would be no more in this world.”
How could we compare Alexander and Hazrat Umar(r.A) while administrative system introduced by Hazrat Umar is prevalent in 245 countries till now. But the administration of Alexander erased from the map of the world within a short time of five years.
Every crippled person got a stipend; an army officer comes back home from his duty, Justice prevails anywhere reminds the golden days of the reign of Hazrat Umar(R.A). last but not least, Prophet Muhammad(SAWW) once said,
“if there would be a prophet after me that surely would be Umar(R.A).”